What You Need:
• One large Red Delicious Apple per every four people
• One disposable plate or napkin per person
• One bag of mini white marshmallows
• One jar of smooth peanut butter
• People with nut allergies may use a nut-free alternative to peanut butter
• One small serving cup per person
• One apple corer
• One sharp knife
• one butter knife or Popsicle stick per person
• Adult supervision
HOW TO DO THE ACTIVITY:
1. Select a large, Red Delicious apple of your choice. Using a red apple will help to create pretty lips for your mouth, but if a red apple is not available, any color will do. Depending on the number of people creating their healthy snack, one apple generally will yield enough segments for four people. Give each person one disposable plate or napkin.
2. With the assistance of an adult, use the apple corer, and remove the apple’s core. Using a sharp knife, slice the apple in half. Then continue to slice the apple into segments that are approximately a 1/2 inch wide.
3. Once you have the apple divided into segments, give each person that is creating their own mouth two segments of apple.
4. Check with all participants to see if anyone has a peanut allergy or treenut allergy, then select the appropriate spread for the apple — which can be either peanut butter, or a peanut butter alternative. If an alternative is not available, apricot jam or marmalade will work just fine as well. Using the small serving cups, give each person 1 Tbsp. of spread.
5. Using the butter knife or Popsicle stick, evenly spread the peanut butter, or the alternative, on one side of each apple segment. Place each segment next to each other, with he spread side up.
6. Each person should then be given five to six mini white marshmallows each. Using one apple segment, place the marshmallows along the edge of the apple, where the skin and flesh meet. The marshmallows should appear to curve with the shape of the segment.
7. Once all of the marshmallows have been placed on the spread, take your other apple segment, and carefully place it on top of the marshmallows. Make sure you try to align the apple as evenly as possible. Then, press down on the fleshy part of the apple that is opposite of the skin.
8. Voila! You have now created a healthy dental craft and snack of your own.
S M I L E
Teeth are small, calcified, white structures found along the jaws of most humans and animals. Humans have two sets of teeth in a lifetime. Adult humans have 32 teeth. Humans first set of teeth are called milk teeth. Children have 20 primary (milk) teeth and generally these will have all been replaced by second teeth by the age of 13. This brand new set of second teeth will hopefully last until the end of your life! Teeth are among the most distinctive and long lasting feature of the mammal species. Wisdom teeth (also called the third molars) are molars that usually erupt from the ages of 17 to 21.
What is the function of each tooth?
The main function of teeth is to chew food. They are also used for defense or protection (biting attackers). Each tooth has a different function. The shape of teeth is often determined by diet. Mammals that only eat plants (herbivores) may have more molars for grinding. Animals that only eat meat (carnivores) may have more incisors for cutting or tearing flesh. There are four types of permanent (second) teeth in a human.
What are the types of teeth?
Incisors: which are used to cut food.
Canines: which are used to tear food.
Premolars: used to grind food.
Molars: also used to grind food.
What is a tooth made of?
The tissue that seals the side of the tooth to prevent infection is called the gum. Teeth are fixed into jaw bones and are held in place by cement. The three main layers of a tooth are called enamel, dentine and the living layer is called the pulp. Enamel is the hardest material in the body. This hard mineralized coating covers an exposed tooth. It is normally grayish or white in color and is a very tough material.
The cementum is a layer of tough, yellowish, bone-like tissue that covers the root of the tooth.
The crown is the visible part of the tooth.
Nerve: This is what allows us to feel hot and cold. Sometimes when this root becomes too sensitive to hot and cold the dentist will kill this nerve. This procedure is called root canal.
Periodontal Ligament: is fleshy tissue between tooth and the tooth socket; it holds the tooth in place.
Healthy teeth and gums are important for general health as bad oral hygiene can lead to diseases of other systems of the body. Man gets two sets of teeth during his lifetime.
Healthy teeth not only help us to grind food so that it can be easily digested but also enhance the beauty of the face. Teeth are also needed for proper pronunciation of words.
There are four types of teeth serving different purposes. They are incisor, canine, premolar and molars. The incisors are used for cutting food. The canines are used for tearing food. They are more developed in carnivorous animals.
The premolars are used for crushing and tearing food and the molars are used for grinding food. In primary dentition there are no premolars.
The first set also called as milk teeth, baby teeth, primary teeth or deciduous teeth start erupting after about six months. There are twenty teeth in the primary dentition ten in each jaw-upper and lower.
Each jaw will have two central incisors, two lateral incisors, two canines and four molars once all the teeth have erupted. They usually erupt in the following order-central incisor, lateral incisor, first molar, canine and second molar. Usually mandibular teeth erupt before maxillary teeth.
Structure of tooth: The part of the tooth visible above the gum is known as the crown. The part of the tooth that is below the gum line is called root. Incisors and canines have only one root whereas premolars and molars have four roots per tooth. Neck of a tooth is that portion at the gum line between the crown and the root.
The crown of a tooth is covered by a very hard substance called the enamel. In fact it is the hardest structure in the body harder than even bone. It is made up of calcium and phosphorus crystals enmeshed in protein matrix. The enamel is almost like a dead structure with no turnover of its elements
EGG-ACTLY WHAT MY TEETH NEED
Learn how the right way of brushing with the right toothpaste will protect your teeth.
3 hard boiled white shell eggs, Coke, cups, fluoride toothpaste
Get 3 white shelled hard boiled eggs. Coat one egg’s shell with fluoride toothpaste. Put one egg in a cup of water (control- explain need for control group), one in Coke, and the one with toothpaste coating in another cup of Coke. Leave for a day or two. What happens? The Coke egg will turn brown but the toothpaste coated one will be protected.
ATTACK OF THE ACID CREATURE
Why do I have to brush my teeth is a common question asked by kids. And of course we explain the reason why over and over again. Next time show your students why they have to brushing is so important.
1. Show students a hard-boiled egg.
2. Ask them, “Why do you think there is a shell around the egg.”
3. Let the students respond. Make sure they come to the conclusion that the hard shell protects the egg.
4. Now give them you best smile and say, “See my teeth? Just like the egg my teeth are protected. Enamel protects my teeth the same way the shell protects what is inside the egg.”
5. Pour two cups of vinegar into one large jar and water in another jar.
6. Have a student place the egg in each jar.
7. Replace the lid on the jars and place the jars in a safe place for student observation.
8. Ask the students to predict what they think will happen to the egg in both jars.
9. Write the students response on a large piece of paper that will be hung in your room
10. When 2 days have passed, slowly and gently remove the egg from both jars.
11. Allow each student to look at the eggs and compare their predictions and results.
Conclusion: Tell the class that the vinegar caused the shell of the egg to break down and become soft, the same way that tooth enamel is damaged by acid and bacteria in the mouth. Brushing every day is the only way to keep this from happening. Hand out a large tooth for the children to write a sentence and draw a picture to illustrate why teeth brushing are important. See ya, I am off to brush my teeth.
• hard-boiled eggs
• soft drink, such as cola or root beer
• water and sugar solutions
• water and salt solutions
• fluoride (from a local dentist, or a dental supply store or pharmacy)
This lesson offers a handful of experiments designed to demonstrate the potential effects of sweets and other foods on healthy teeth. Students might work in small groups to perform the experiments.
For this simple experiment for primary grade students, fill one container with water and another with a brown soft drink — cola or root beer, for example. Place a hard-boiled egg into each container. (You might give each student an egg to place in the soft-drink container.) Leave the eggs in the soft drink overnight. Pour out the liquid the next day and examine the eggs. Have students compare the eggs left in the soda to the egg left in the water. How are the eggs different? Why? Students should be able to draw the conclusion that it is important to brush each night to keep their teeth clean and white.
MY TEETH LOOK LIKE BONES !
dried chicken bones
Lesson: Study the effects of acidic solutions on the enamel on teeth.
Before doing this experiment, collect chicken bones and set them aside to dry for a few days. (You might ask students a week in advance to collect chicken bones at home and bring them into school.) Provide each student or small group of students with 2 or more bones. Have student(s) place one of the bones in a plastic cup; then pour vinegar in the cup to cover the bone. Leave the other bone exposed to the air. Let the bones sit for several days, and then have students compare the two bones. What has happened? Why? (The bones soaked in vinegar will be noticeably softer. Vinegar is an acid. It has eaten away some of the bones’ calcium.) Students should conclude from this activity that brushing and flossing teeth removes harmful food particles from teeth. Food left between teeth eventually turns to a kind of acid that can decay teeth.
THAT IS MY FAVORITE SHADE OF TEETH
This experiment studies the effects of different solutions on teeth.
• hard-boiled eggs
• soft drink, such as cola or root beer
• fingernail polish
• water and sugar solutions
• water and salt solutions
Have students brush nail polish onto half of a egg and let it dry. Put the egg in a variety of solutions — including water, water with sugar, a soft drink, water with salt, and vinegar — to see what effects those solutions have on the teeth. Compare the effects and draw conclusions about tooth care.
ANATOMY OF A TOOTH
Beneath the enamel is a layer of tissue called dentine. This is softer than enamel and is slightly elastic and compressible in nature. It is a live tissue and is sensitive.
Underneath the gum the dentine of the root of the tooth is covered by a layer which is different from the enamel and is called cementum. In between the bony socket for the tooth and the cementum there is a membrane called the periodontal membrane.
The innermost layer of a tooth is called the pulp. It is made up of soft tissue containing blood vessels, nerves and lymph vessels. The part of the pulp inside the root of the tooth is referred to as the root canal. The cementum has an opening at the tip of the root to allow blood vessels and nerves to enter the pulp.
EGG-ACTLY WHAT MY TOOTH NEEDED
FLOSS IS THE BOSS
What you’ll need:
a rubber glove, a jar of peanut butter and something to spread it with, a container of dental floss, a toothbrush and some toothpaste.
What to do:
Put the glove on one hand and hold your hand with the fingers extended but tightly together, pointing upward (your hand with the glove should look like you’re going to give your friend a “high five:, or how a policeman holds his hand up to stop traffic).
Spread your fingers apart and have someone spread peanut butter between your fingers – make sure to get the peanut butter deep between your finger joints. Tighten your fingers together again.
In this experiment, your fingers represent your teeth, and the peanut butter between them is food that gets trapped between your teeth when you eat.
With your fingers still tightly together and held upward, use the toothbrush and toothpaste to try and scrub the peanut butter away (remember not to move your fingers apart!).
Have someone else try to remove the peanut butter using the dental floss between your fingers. Which does a better job – the toothbrush and paste or the floss?
What will happen?
A toothbrush simply can’t reach all the places between your teeth. Dental floss can do a much better job of removing food between your teeth. If it’s not removed, it can cause gum disease and cavities.
Your mouth is a busy place. Bacteria – tiny colonies of living organisms are constantly on the move on your teeth, gums, lips and tongue. It is up to you to keep the mouth from getting too crowded.
Having bacteria in your mouth is a normal thing. While some of the bacteria can be harmful, most are not and some are even helpful. The healthy balance must be maintained in order for your mouth and body to stay fit. After all the mouth is the gateway to your whole body.
Certain types of bacteria, however, can attach themselves to hard surfaces like the enamel that covers your teeth. If they’re not removed, they multiply and grow in number until a colony forms. More bacteria of different types attach to the colony already growing on the tooth enamel. Proteins that are present in your saliva (spit) also mix in and the bacteria colony becomes a whitish film on the tooth. This film is called plaque, and it’s what causes cavities.
The only way to prevent these pesky germs is regular brushing, flossing, mouthwash, and dental checkups. Then you can put out the “NO VACANCY” sign.
FOAMING AT THE MOUTH
You put something in your mouth every day that has the ability to produce bubbles in a similar fashion to the previous experiment. However, this doesn’t involve any acids, just toothpaste and a can of soda.
How can I make myself foam at the mouth?
• Toothpaste with baking soda
• carbonated water or your favorite soda
• Tooth brush
1. Rinse your tooth brush under water in the sink.
2. Apply a small amount of toothpaste to the brush.
3. Brush your teeth as you normally would.
4. Rinse your mouth with the carbonated water or soda.
5. Stand back and watch your mouth start to foam like a volcano. Yahoo!
6. Now talk about the chemical reactions that are happening inside your mouth.
7. Did your mouth foam with just the toothpaste in your mouth? Did the toothpaste in your mouth change when you rinsed with the carbonated water or your favorite soda? What is happening?
THAT IS MY FAVORITE SHADE OF TEETH
Egg in different solutions…
What are the effects on the egg after 10 minutes?
How are the effects on the eggs similar to effects on teeth?
Egg in Water
Egg in soda such as root beer or cola
Egg in water and salt
Egg in water and sugar
Egg in vinegar